Predicate Model for Ontologies (PreMOn) - Core ontology module

IRI:
http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core
Date:
2017-05-01
Current version:
2017a
Authors:
Francesco Corcoglioniti
Marco Rospocher <https://dkm.fbk.eu/rospocher>
Publisher:
DKM, Fondazione Bruno Kessler <http://dkm.fbk.eu/>
Imported Ontologies:
http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex
RDF version:
RDF/XML (.owl), Turtle (.ttl), NTriples (.nt)

Abstract

The [PreMOn Ontology](http://premon.fbk.eu) is an extension of [lemon](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification) (W3C Ontology Lexicon Community Group, 2015) for representing *predicate models* and their *mappings*. The Core Module of the PreMOn Ontology defines the main abstractions for modelling *semantic classes* with their *semantic roles*, *mappings* between different predicate models, and *annotations*.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

### Semantic Classes and Roles The *PreMOn Ontology Core Module* extends *lemon* by introducing classes [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass) and [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole). [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass) homogeneously represents the semantic classes from the various predicate models. That is, individuals of this class correspond to rolesets in PB and NB (e.g., *pm:nb10-seller.01* and *pm:pb17-sell.01*), verb classes in VN (e.g., *pm:vn32-give-13.1-1*), and frames in FN (e.g., *pm:fn15-commerce sell*). An instance of [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass) typically has (via property [pmo:semRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#semRole)) a number of [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole)s, representing, from a semantic point of view, the roles the arguments of that [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass) can play. Semantic roles are defined locally to semantic classes, so VN *agent* is represented as multiple semantic roles, one for each verb class it occurs in, and with each semantic role linked to its specific selectional restrictions (if any). Note that [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass) is defined as subclass of [ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept), as we see [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass)es as essentially informal concepts rather than well defined concepts of a formal ontology (although an ontology can be derived from them, cf., FrameBase and ESO). In particular, being [ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept)s, [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass)es inherit the link to lexical entries. Properties [pmo:classRel](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#classRel) and [pmo:roleRel](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#roleRel), and their resource-specific subproperties, are introduced to express the relations between elements at each level, such as subtyping, and predicate and role inheritance (e.g., [pmofn:inheritsFrom](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/fn#inheritsFrom) and [pmofn:inheritsFromFER](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/fn#inheritsFromFER) for FN). Additional resource-specific classes (e.g., [pmovn:ThematicRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/vn#ThematicRole)) and properties (e.g., [pmovn:thematicRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/vn#thematicRole)) further characterize important aspects of each predicate model, like commonalities between semantic roles. ### Mappings Mappings between different predicate models are practically relevant but cannot be expressed using only the classes above, as they are often defined (e.g., in SemLink and PredicateMatrix) in terms of <[pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass), [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry)> pairs. To model these pairs, one could reuse the notion of [ontolex:LexicalSense](http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#LexicalSense). However, its formalization in lemon as reified relation depends on the existence of (exactly) one ontological entity for each <[ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept), [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry)> pair, a strong constraint that we do not necessarily need for our purposes. Therefore, we introduce the [pmo:Conceptualization](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Conceptualization) class. Structurally, a [pmo:Conceptualization](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Conceptualization) can be seen as the reification of the [ontolex:evokes](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Evokes) relation between [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry) and [ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept). Semantically, it can be seen as a very specific intensional concept (among many, in case of polysemy) evoked by a single [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry), which can be generalized to a [ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept) when multiple entries are considered but with a possible loss of information that prevents precise alignments to be represented. Mappings are explicitly represented as individuals of class [pmo:Mapping](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Mapping), and can be seen as sets of (or n-ary relations between) either (i) [pmo:Conceptualization](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Conceptualization)s, (ii) [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass)es, and (iii) [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole)s, with role mappings anchored to conceptualization or class mappings via property [pmo:semRoleMapping](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#semRoleMapping). We rely on this set-like modeling, since mappings are not necessarily represented as binary relations in predicate mapping resources: e.g., in the PredicateMatrix, each row represents the mapping of a semantic role / lexical entry pair over the different resources (e.g., <*13.1-1-agent*, *deal*> in VN, <*sell.01-arg0*, *sell*> in PB, <*Commerce Sell-seller*, *sell*> in FN) as well as the corresponding WordNet verb sense. Reifying the n-ary mapping relation also allows us, if needed, to further characterize each single mapping, asserting additional information such as confidence and reliability. Moreover, it is possible to further specialize mappings (e.g., to model mappings holding only in one direction, from a resource to another one, or to represent different types of relationships among the members of the mapping) by subtyping the [pmo:Mapping](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Mapping) class or the property ([pmo:item](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#item)) relating a [pmo:Mapping](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Mapping) to its members. ### Ontological Mappings Building on *lemon*, *PreMOn* inherits the capability of linking lexical content to ontological resources. In particular, being [ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept)s, [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass)es inherit the link (via [ontolex:isConceptOf](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Concept)) to the ontological entities formalizing them, typically event classes. However, in order to properly align predicate models to existing frame/event-based ontologies such as FrameBase and ESO, *PreMOn* introduces the property [pmo:ontologyMatch](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#ontologyMatch), having as domain [skos:Concept](https://www.w3.org/2009/08/skos-reference/skos.html#Concept), to enable the possibility of linking to ontological entities also other resources than [ontolex:LexicalConcept](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Concept)s. In particular, [pmo:ontologyMatch](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#ontologyMatch) property enables the alignment to ontology elements of resources such as: * [pmo:Conceptualization](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Conceptualization)s * [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass)es (in this case, [ontolex:isConceptOf](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Concept) can be seen as a subproperty of [pmo:ontologyMatch](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#ontologyMatch), although we abstained from formally enforcing this) * [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole)s. ### Annotations Predicate models are typically complemented by examples showing concrete occurrences of semantic classes and roles in text. More generally, a text can be annotated with semantic classes and roles as a result of manual or automatic SRL. The PreMOn Ontology provides some common primitives, based on the [NLP Interchange Format](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core/nif-core.html) (NIF) by Hellmann et al. (2013), which aim at properly modeling the heterogeneous annotations of a text for different predicate models. NIF introduces the general notion of [nif:String](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#String) to represent arbitrary text strings. [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context) is a particular subclass of [nif:String](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#String), representing a whole string of text. Any substring (itself a [nif:String](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#String)) has a [nif:referenceContext](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#referenceContext) relation to the [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context) individual representing the whole text containing it. To specifically model the aforementioned examples complementing predicate models, we introduce [pmo:Example](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Example), subclass of [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context), to represent the string associated with the example. The occurrence of a [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry), [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass), or [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole) in a [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context) is denoted by an instance of [nif:Annotation](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Annotation), related to the given [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry), [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass), or [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole) via property [pmo:valueObj](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#valueObj) (the value attached to the annotation), and to the [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context) instance via property [nif:annotation](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#annotation). If detailed information on the specific span of text (i.e., substring) denoting the [ontolex:LexicalEntry](https://www.w3.org/community/ontolex/wiki/Final_Model_Specification#Lexical_Entry), [pmo:SemanticClass](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass), or [pmo:SemanticRole](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole) is available (e.g., FN provides the specific offsets of lexical units, frames, and frame elements, in the example text) an additional instance of [pmo:Markable](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Markable), subclass of [nif:String](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#String), is created and linked to the specific [nif:Annotation](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Annotation) and [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context) via properties [nif:annotation](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#annotation) and [nif:referenceContext](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#referenceContext), respectively. As the same [nif:Context](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context) may contain multiple [nif:Annotation](http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Annotation)s referring to one or more semantic classes and their corresponding roles, an additional [pmo:AnnotationSet](http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#AnnotationSet) instance is created to cluster annotations from the same predicate structure.

Classes

Annotation Setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#AnnotationSet

Represent each annotation of a semantic class, togheter with its semantic roles, in an example
has super-classes
itemop only annotationc
itemop min 1 annotationc

Conceptualizationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Conceptualization

Structurally, it can be seen as the reification of the [ontolex:evokes](http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#evokes) relation between [ontolex:LexicalEntry](http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#LexicalEntry) and [ontolex:LexicalConcept](http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#LexicalConcept). Semantically, it can be seen as a very specific intensional concept (among many, in case of polysemy) evoked by a single [ontolex:LexicalEntry](http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#LexicalEntry), which can be generalized to a [ontolex:LexicalConcept](http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#LexicalConcept) when multiple entries are considered but with a possible loss of information that prevents precise alignments to be represented.
has super-classes
evoking entryop exactly 1 lexical entry
evoked conceptop exactly 1 lexical concept
concept
is in domain of
evoked conceptop, evoking entryop

Conceptualization Mappingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#ConceptualizationMapping

An individual of this class represents a mapping between Conceptualizations
has super-classes
itemop only Conceptualizationc
Mappingc

Examplec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Example

Represent the text associated to an example
has super-classes
inverse reference contextop only Markablec
contextc

Mappingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Mapping

An individual of this class represents a mapping between [skos:Concepts](http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concepts)
has super-classes
(itemop only Conceptualizationc) or (itemop only Semantic Classc) or (itemop only Semantic Rolec)
itemop min 2 concept
has sub-classes
Conceptualization Mappingc, Semantic Class Mappingc, Semantic Role Mappingc

Markablec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#Markable

Represent a piece of text to which some annotation is attached to
has super-classes
reference contextop exactly 1 Examplec
reference contextop only Examplec
r f c5147 stringc

Semantic Classc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClass

SemanticClass homogeneously represents the semantic classes from the various predicate models. That is, individuals of this class correspond to rolesets in PB and NB (e.g., pm:nb10-seller.01 and pm:pb17-sell.01), verb classes in VN (e.g., pm:vn32-give-13.1-1), and frames in FN (e.g., pm:fn15-commerce sell).
has super-classes
lexical concept
is in domain of
semantic class relationop, semantic roleop
is in range of
semantic class relationop

Semantic Class Mappingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticClassMapping

An individual of this class represents a mapping between SemanticClasses
has super-classes
itemop only Semantic Classc
Mappingc

Semantic Rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRole

SemanticRoles tepresent the roles the arguments of a SemanticClass can play. Semantic roles are defined locally to semantic classes, so VN agent is represented as multiple semantic roles, one for each verb class it occurs in, and with each semantic role linked to its specific selectional restrictions (if any).
has super-classes
concept
is in domain of
semantic role relationop
is in range of
semantic roleop, semantic role relationop

Semantic Role Mappingc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#SemanticRoleMapping

An individual of this class represents a mapping between SemanticRoles
has super-classes
inverse semantic role mappingop some thingc
itemop only Semantic Rolec
Mappingc
is in range of
semantic role mappingop

Object Properties

evoked conceptop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#evokedConcept

has characteristics: functional

has super-properties
top object property
has domain
Conceptualizationc
has range
lexical concept

evoking entryop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#evokingEntry

has characteristics: functional

has domain
Conceptualizationc
has range
lexical entry

firstop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#first

first, item, next are used to model set-like construct
has super-properties
itemop

itemop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#item

first, item, next are used to model set-like construct
has sub-properties
firstop
has sub-property chains
itemop o nextop

ontology (exact) matchop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#ontologyMatch

PreMOn generic property to associate a SKOS concept to an ontological entity
has domain
concept
has range
resource

semantic class relationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#classRel

has domain
Semantic Classc
has range
Semantic Classc

semantic roleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#semRole

has domain
Semantic Classc
has range
Semantic Rolec

semantic role mappingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#semRoleMapping

relates a mapping between semantic roles to the corresponding mapping between semantic classes and/or conceptualizations

semantic role relationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#roleRel

has domain
Semantic Rolec
has range
Semantic Rolec

valueop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#valueObj

generic property to associate an object value to an instance

Data Properties

abbreviationdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#abbreviation

has super-properties
top data property
has range
string

value dtdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#valueDt

generic property to associate an data value to an instance

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/core#
core
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
images
http://premon.fbk.eu/images/
lemon
http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/
nif-core
http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#
ns
http://premon.fbk.eu/ns/
ontolex
http://www.w3.org/ns/lemon/ontolex#
ontology
http://premon.fbk.eu/ontology/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
terms
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
vann
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.